This module represents quite well my recent interest in new media psychology (e.g., needs) and behavior (e.g., multitasking). What drives me to search for more interpretative frameworks is the simple fact that we are now almost unable to tell in which moments the media are influencing audiences or the users are controlling the media. It is no longer relevant to ask what media do to audiences or what audiences do to media. The two actors, users and artifacts, are constantly and immediately doing things to each other. Another interesting take of this module is that although the title puts cognition in the first place, the content reflects a deep dissatisfaction with cognitive science and its focus on human minds. A paradigm shift that seems to come out is the theorization of context and its philosophical ground that sees human actors as fundamentally bounded by their environments. However, it does not mean that we shall give up the effort to study cognition. It is only that cognition does not only reside in human brains. Believe me, this shift is anything but an easy change of viewpoint. I spent (and will spend) much time debating with my students on this shift because it seems so "soulless" to put "things" at the same level as "people" in terms of agency. Well, let us see whether a soulless search can lead to the discovery of human condition, the conditions under which we are being human.
Suppe, F. The structure of scientific theories. University of Illinois Press. (Read: pp. 135-151 (b) Kuhn)
Harrison, S., Tatar, D., & Sengers, P. (2007). The three paradigms of HCI. http://people.cs.vt.edu/~srh/Downloads/TheThreeParadigmsofHCI.pdf
Walther, J. B., Gay, G., & Hancock, J. T. (2005). How do communication and technology researchers study the Internet? Journal of Communication, 55, 632-657.
Methodology - experiments
Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. (Read: Ch. 1 & 8)
Mitchell, M.L. and J.M. Jolley. (2007). Research Design Explained, 6th edition. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. (Read: Ch. 11).
Walther, J. B. (2001). Is a picture worth a thousand words? Photographic images in long-term and short-term computer-mediated communication. Communication Research, 28(1), 105-134.
Methodology – cognitive ethnography
Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Read Ch. 1 introduction)
Suchman, L. A. (1992). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human machine communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Read Ch. 6 cases and methodology).
Bodker, S. (1996). Applying activity theory to video analysis: How to make sense of video data in HCI. In B. A. Nardi (Ed). Context and consciousness: activity theory and human-computer interaction, pp. 147-174. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Information Processing Paradigm
Proctor, R. W. & Vu, K. L. (2009). The Cognitive Revolution at Age 50: Has the Promise of the Human Information-Processing Approach Been Fulfilled? International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, v. 25, p. 729- 784.
Miller, G. A. (2003). The cognitive revolution: a historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, v. 7, pp. 141- 144.
Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 14.
Rockwell, S. C. & Singleton, L. A. (2007). The Effect of the Modality of Presentation of Streaming Multimedia on Information Acquisition. Media Psychology, 9, 179-191.
Oviatt, S., Coulston, R., & Lunsford, R. (2004). When do we interact multimodally?: Cognitive load and multimodal communication patterns. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ACM), 129–136.
Virtual environments as new media
Stanney, K. & Zyda, M. (2002). Virtual Environments in the 21st century. InStanney, K. (Ed.), Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Application, pp. (1-14). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zimmer, M. (2010). Web search studies: Multidisciplinary perspectives on Web search engines. In J. Hunsinger, L. Klastrup, & M. Allen (Eds.), International Handbook of Internet Research. London: Springer.
Pan, B., Hembrooke, H., Joachims, T., Lorigo, L., Gay, G., and Granka, L. (2007). In Google we trust: Users' decisions on rank, position, and relevance. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 (3). Retrieved on January 8, 2009 from
Wirth, W., Bocking, T., Karnowski, V., & von Pape, T. (2007). Heuristic and Systematic Use of Search Engines. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 (3). Retrieved on January 8, 2009 from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue3/wirth.html
Sundar, S. S. (2007). Social psychology of interactivity in human-website interaction. In A. N. Joinson, K. Y. A. McKenna, T. Postmes & U-D. Reips (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Internet Psychology (pp. 89-104). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Chung, D. S. & Yoo, C. Y. (200?). Audience Motivations for Using Interactive Features: Distinguishing Use of Different Types of Interactivity on an Online Newspaper. Mass Communication & Society, 11: 375-397.
Sundar, S. S., Kalyanaraman, S., & Brown, J. (2003). Explicating website interactivity: Impression-formation effects in political campaign sites. Communication Research, 30 (1), 30-59.
Nardi, B. A. (1996). Studying context: A comparison of activity theory, situated action models, and distributed cognition. In B. A. Nardi (Ed). Context and consciousness: activity theory and human-computer interaction, pp. 69-102. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Suchman, L. A. (1992). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human machine communication. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Read Ch. 4 situated action).
Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. (Read Ch. 7 through the supermarket)
Zhang, W., Jeong, S. H., & Fishbein, M. (2010). Situational factors competing for attention: The interaction effect between multitasking and sexual explicitness on TV recognition. Journal of Media Psychology, 22(1), 2-13.
Spink, A., Park, M., Jansen, B. J., & Pedersen, J. (2006). Multitasking during Web search sessions. Information Processing and Management, 42,264–275
Foehr, U. G. (2006). Media multitasking among American youth: Prevalence, predictors, and pairings. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Perry, M. (2003). Distributed Cognition. In J. Carroll (Ed.) HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks (pp. 193 – 200). Moran Kauffmann Publishers: San Francisco, CA.